Realizing high-energy density for practical lithium–sulfur batteries
Ruopian Fang, Ke Chen, Zhenhua Sun, Guangjian Hu, Da-Wei Wang, Feng Li
Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries has emerged as a promising post-lithium-ion battery technology due to their high potential energy density and low raw material cost. Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in research on Li–S batteries, yet no high-energy Li–S battery products have reached the market at scale. Achieving high-energy Li–S batteries necessitates a multidisciplinary approach involving advanced electrode material design, electrochemistry, and electrode and cell engineering. In this perspective, we offer a holistic view of pathways for realizing high-energy Li–S batteries under practical conditions. Starting with a market outlook for high-energy batteries, we present a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the critical parameters that dictate the cell-level energy density for a Li–S battery. Thereby we establish a protocol to expedite the integration of lab-scale Li–S research results into practical cell. Furthermore, we underscore several key considerations for promotion of commercial viability of high-energy Li–S batteries from the perspective of battery industrialization.